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❶The individual consciousness and especially the individual imagination are especially fascinating for the Romantics.

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The end of the Romantic era is marked in some areas by a new style of Realism , which affected literature, especially the novel and drama, painting, and even music, through Verismo opera.

This movement was led by France, with Balzac and Flaubert in literature and Courbet in painting; Stendhal and Goya were important precursors of Realism in their respective media. However, Romantic styles, now often representing the established and safe style against which Realists rebelled, continued to flourish in many fields for the rest of the century and beyond. In music such works from after about are referred to by some writers as "Late Romantic" and by others as "Neoromantic" or "Postromantic", but other fields do not usually use these terms; in English literature and painting the convenient term "Victorian" avoids having to characterise the period further.

In northern Europe, the Early Romantic visionary optimism and belief that the world was in the process of great change and improvement had largely vanished, and some art became more conventionally political and polemical as its creators engaged polemically with the world as it was. Elsewhere, including in very different ways the United States and Russia, feelings that great change was underway or just about to come were still possible.

Displays of intense emotion in art remained prominent, as did the exotic and historical settings pioneered by the Romantics, but experimentation with form and technique was generally reduced, often replaced with meticulous technique, as in the poems of Tennyson or many paintings. If not realist, late 19th-century art was often extremely detailed, and pride was taken in adding authentic details in a way that earlier Romantics did not trouble with.

Many Romantic ideas about the nature and purpose of art, above all the pre-eminent importance of originality, remained important for later generations, and often underlie modern views, despite opposition from theorists.

In literature, Romanticism found recurrent themes in the evocation or criticism of the past, the cult of " sensibility " with its emphasis on women and children, the isolation of the artist or narrator, and respect for nature. Romanticism tended to regard satire as something unworthy of serious attention, a prejudice still influential today.

Some authors cite 16th century poet Isabella di Morra as an early precursor of Romantic literature. Her lyrics covering themes of isolation and loneliness which reflected the tragic events of her life are considered "an impressive prefigurement of Romanticism", [40] differing from the Petrarchist fashion of the time based on the philosophy of love.

The precursors of Romanticism in English poetry go back to the middle of the 18th century, including figures such as Joseph Warton headmaster at Winchester College and his brother Thomas Warton , Professor of Poetry at Oxford University. Thomas Chatterton is generally considered the first Romantic poet in English. Both Chatterton and Macpherson's work involved elements of fraud, as what they claimed was earlier literature that they had discovered or compiled was, in fact, entirely their own work.

The Gothic novel , beginning with Horace Walpole 's The Castle of Otranto , was an important precursor of one strain of Romanticism, with a delight in horror and threat, and exotic picturesque settings, matched in Walpole's case by his role in the early revival of Gothic architecture. Tristram Shandy , a novel by Laurence Sterne —67 introduced a whimsical version of the anti-rational sentimental novel to the English literary public.

An early German influence came from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , whose novel The Sorrows of Young Werther had young men throughout Europe emulating its protagonist, a young artist with a very sensitive and passionate temperament. At that time Germany was a multitude of small separate states, and Goethe's works would have a seminal influence in developing a unifying sense of nationalism.

Heidelberg later became a center of German Romanticism, where writers and poets such as Clemens Brentano , Achim von Arnim , and Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff met regularly in literary circles. Important motifs in German Romanticism are travelling, nature, for example the German Forest , and Germanic myths.

The later German Romanticism of, for example E. The significance to Romanticism of childhood innocence, the importance of imagination, and racial theories all combined to give an unprecedented importance to folk literature , non-classical mythology and children's literature , above all in Germany. Brentano and von Arnim were significant literary figures who together published Des Knaben Wunderhorn "The Boy's Magic Horn" or cornucopia , a collection of versified folk tales, in — One of the brothers, Jacob , published in Deutsche Mythologie , a long academic work on Germanic mythology.

The publication in of Lyrical Ballads , with many of the finest poems by Wordsworth and Coleridge, is often held to mark the start of the movement. The majority of the poems were by Wordsworth, and many dealt with the lives of the poor in his native Lake District , or his feelings about nature—which he more fully developed in his long poem The Prelude , never published in his lifetime.

The longest poem in the volume was Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner , which showed the Gothic side of English Romanticism, and the exotic settings that many works featured. In the period when they were writing, the Lake Poets were widely regarded as a marginal group of radicals, though they were supported by the critic and writer William Hazlitt and others.

In contrast Lord Byron and Walter Scott achieved enormous fame and influence throughout Europe with works exploiting the violence and drama of their exotic and historical settings; Goethe called Byron "undoubtedly the greatest genius of our century". Both were set in the distant Scottish past, already evoked in Ossian ; Romanticism and Scotland were to have a long and fruitful partnership. Byron had equal success with the first part of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage in , followed by four "Turkish tales", all in the form of long poems, starting with The Giaour in , drawing from his Grand Tour , which had reached Ottoman Europe, and orientalizing the themes of the Gothic novel in verse.

These featured different variations of the " Byronic hero ", and his own life contributed a further version. Scott meanwhile was effectively inventing the historical novel , beginning in with Waverley , set in the Jacobite rising , which was an enormous and highly profitable success, followed by over 20 further Waverley Novels over the next 17 years, with settings going back to the Crusades that he had researched to a degree that was new in literature.

In contrast to Germany, Romanticism in English literature had little connection with nationalism, and the Romantics were often regarded with suspicion for the sympathy many felt for the ideals of the French Revolution , whose collapse and replacement with the dictatorship of Napoleon was, as elsewhere in Europe, a shock to the movement. Though his novels celebrated Scottish identity and history, Scott was politically a firm Unionist. Several spent much time abroad, and a famous stay on Lake Geneva with Byron and Shelley in produced the hugely influential novel Frankenstein by Shelley's wife-to-be Mary Shelley and the novella The Vampyre by Byron's doctor John William Polidori.

The lyrics of Robert Burns in Scotland and Thomas Moore , from Ireland reflected in different ways their countries and the Romantic interest in folk literature, but neither had a fully Romantic approach to life or their work.

Byron is now most highly regarded for his short lyrics and his generally unromantic prose writings, especially his letters, and his unfinished satire Don Juan. Wordsworth was by respectable and highly regarded, holding a government sinecure , but wrote relatively little.

In the discussion of English literature, the Romantic period is often regarded as finishing around the s, or sometimes even earlier, although many authors of the succeeding decades were no less committed to Romantic values.

The most significant novelist in English during the peak Romantic period, other than Walter Scott, was Jane Austen , whose essentially conservative world-view had little in common with her Romantic contemporaries, retaining a strong belief in decorum and social rules, though critics [ who?

Most notably Charlotte's Jane Eyre and Emily's Wuthering Heights ,both published in , which also introduced more gothic themes. While these two novels were written and published after the Romantic period is said to have ended, their novels were heavily influenced by Romantic literature they'd read as children.

Byron, Keats and Shelley all wrote for the stage, but with little success in England, with Shelley's The Cenci perhaps the best work produced, though that was not played in a public theatre in England until a century after his death. Byron's plays, along with dramatizations of his poems and Scott's novels, were much more popular on the Continent, and especially in France, and through these versions several were turned into operas, many still performed today.

If contemporary poets had little success on the stage, the period was a legendary one for performances of Shakespeare , and went some way to restoring his original texts and removing the Augustan "improvements" to them. The greatest actor of the period, Edmund Kean , restored the tragic ending to King Lear ; [50] Coleridge said that, "Seeing him act was like reading Shakespeare by flashes of lightning. Although after union with England in Scotland increasingly adopted English language and wider cultural norms, its literature developed a distinct national identity and began to enjoy an international reputation.

Allan Ramsay — laid the foundations of a reawakening of interest in older Scottish literature, as well as leading the trend for pastoral poetry, helping to develop the Habbie stanza as a poetic form. Claiming to have found poetry written by the ancient bard Ossian , he published translations that acquired international popularity, being proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical epics.

Fingal , written in , was speedily translated into many European languages, and its appreciation of natural beauty and treatment of the ancient legend has been credited more than any single work with bringing about the Romantic movement in European, and especially in German literature, through its influence on Johann Gottfried von Herder and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

Robert Burns —96 and Walter Scott — were highly influenced by the Ossian cycle. Burns, an Ayrshire poet and lyricist, is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland and a major influence on the Romantic movement. His poem and song " Auld Lang Syne " is often sung at Hogmanay the last day of the year , and " Scots Wha Hae " served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country.

His first prose work, Waverley in , is often called the first historical novel. Scott probably did more than any other figure to define and popularise Scottish cultural identity in the nineteenth century.

Scotland was also the location of two of the most important literary magazines of the era, The Edinburgh Review founded in and Blackwood's Magazine founded in , which had a major impact on the development of British literature and drama in the era of Romanticism.

Scottish "national drama" emerged in the early s, as plays with specifically Scottish themes began to dominate the Scottish stage. Theatres had been discouraged by the Church of Scotland and fears of Jacobite assemblies. In the later eighteenth century, many plays were written for and performed by small amateur companies and were not published and so most have been lost. Towards the end of the century there were " closet dramas ", primarily designed to be read, rather than performed, including work by Scott, Hogg, Galt and Joanna Baillie — , often influenced by the ballad tradition and Gothic Romanticism.

Romanticism was relatively late in developing in French literature , more so than in the visual arts. The 18th-century precursor to Romanticism, the cult of sensibility, had become associated with the Ancien regime , and the French Revolution had been more of an inspiration to foreign writers than those experiencing it at first-hand.

After the Bourbon Restoration , French Romanticism developed in the lively world of Parisian theatre , with productions of Shakespeare , Schiller in France a key Romantic author , and adaptations of Scott and Byron alongside French authors, several of whom began to write in the late s.

Cliques of pro- and anti-Romantics developed, and productions were often accompanied by raucous vocalizing by the two sides, including the shouted assertion by one theatregoer in that "Shakespeare, c'est l'aide-de-camp de Wellington" "Shakespeare is Wellington's aide-de-camp ".

Victor Hugo published as a poet in the s before achieving success on the stage with Hernani —a historical drama in a quasi-Shakespearian style that had famously riotous performances on its first run in The preface to his unperformed play "Cromwell" gives an important manifesto of French Romanticism, stating that "there are no rules, or models".

Alfred de Vigny remains best known as a dramatist, with his play on the life of the English poet Chatterton perhaps his best work. George Sand was a central figure of the Parisian literary scene, famous both for her novels and criticism and her affairs with Chopin and several others; [68] she too was inspired by the theatre, and wrote works to be staged at her private estate. Stendhal is today probably the most highly regarded French novelist of the period, but he stands in a complex relation with Romanticism, and is notable for his penetrating psychological insight into his characters and his realism, qualities rarely prominent in Romantic fiction.

As a survivor of the French retreat from Moscow in , fantasies of heroism and adventure had little appeal for him, and like Goya he is often seen as a forerunner of Realism.

Romanticism in Poland is often taken to begin with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz 's first poems in , and end with the crushing of the January Uprising of against the Russians. It was strongly marked by interest in Polish history. This close connection between Polish Romanticism and Polish history became one of the defining qualities of the literature of Polish Romanticism period, differentiating it from that of other countries.

They had not suffered the loss of national statehood as was the case with Poland. The Polish intelligentsia, along with leading members of its government, left Poland in the early s, during what is referred to as the " Great Emigration ", resettling in France, Germany, Great Britain, Turkey, and the United States.

Their art featured emotionalism and irrationality , fantasy and imagination, personality cults, folklore and country life, and the propagation of ideals of freedom. In the second period, many of the Polish Romantics worked abroad, often banished from Poland by the occupying powers due to their politically subversive ideas.

Their work became increasingly dominated by the ideals of political struggle for freedom and their country's sovereignty. Elements of mysticism became more prominent. There developed the idea of the poeta wieszcz the prophet. The wieszcz bard functioned as spiritual leader to the nation fighting for its independence. The most notable poet so recognized was Adam Mickiewicz. Zygmunt Krasinski also wrote to inspire political and religious hope in his countrymen.

Unlike his predecessors, who called for victory at whatever price in Poland's struggle against Russia, Krasinski emphasized Poland's spiritual role in its fight for independence, advocating an intellectual rather than a military superiority.

His works best exemplify the Messianic movement in Poland: Pushkin's work influenced many writers in the 19th century and led to his eventual recognition as Russia's greatest poet. Influenced heavily by Lord Byron, Lermontov sought to explore the Romantic emphasis on metaphysical discontent with society and self, while Tyutchev's poems often described scenes of nature or passions of love. Tyutchev commonly operated with such categories as night and day, north and south, dream and reality, cosmos and chaos, and the still world of winter and spring teeming with life.

Baratynsky's style was fairly classical in nature, dwelling on the models of the previous century. Romanticism in Spanish literature developed a well-known literature with a huge variety of poets and playwrights. Spanish Romanticism also influenced regional literatures. There are scholars who consider Spanish Romanticism to be Proto-Existentialism because it is more anguished than the movement in other European countries.

According to Richard Caldwell, the writers that we now identify with Spain's romanticism were actually precursors to those who galvanized the literary movement that emerged in the s.

Alexandre, bishop of Angra , in the precepts of Neoclassicism , which can be observed in his early work. Almeida Garrett had participated in the Liberal Revolution , which caused him to exile himself in England in and then in France, after the Vila-Francada. He was also deeply interested in Portuguese folkloric verse, which resulted in the publication of Romanceiro "Traditional Portuguese Ballads" , that recollect a great number of ancient popular ballads, known as "romances" or "rimances", in redondilha maior verse form, that contained stories of chivalry , life of saints , crusades , courtly love , etc.

He too was forced to exile to Great Britain and France because of his liberal ideals. All of his poetry and prose are unlike Almeida Garrett's entirely Romantic, rejecting Greco-Roman myth and history.

He became an unquestionable master for successive Ultra-Romantic generations, whose influence would not be challenged until the famous Coimbra Question. He also created polemics by translating Goethe 's Faust without knowing German, but using French versions of the play.

An early Portuguese expression of Romanticism is found already in poets such as Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage especially in his sonnets dated at the end of the 18th century and Leonor de Almeida Portugal, Marquise of Alorna. Before that date, Ugo Foscolo had already published poems anticipating Romantic themes.

Better known authors such as Alessandro Manzoni and Giacomo Leopardi were influenced by Enlightenment as well as by Romanticism and Classicism. His writings were influenced by his hatred for the Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas , and filled with themes of blood and terror, using the metaphor of a slaughterhouse to portray the violence of Rosas' dictatorship.

Brazilian Romanticism is characterized and divided in three different periods. The first one is basically focused on the creation of a sense of national identity, using the ideal of the heroic Indian. The second period, sometimes called Ultra-Romanticism , is marked by a profound influence of European themes and traditions, involving the melancholy, sadness and despair related to unobtainable love.

Goethe and Lord Byron are commonly quoted in these works. American Romantic Gothic literature made an early appearance with Washington Irving 's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle , followed from onwards by the Leatherstocking Tales of James Fenimore Cooper , with their emphasis on heroic simplicity and their fervent landscape descriptions of an already-exotic mythicized frontier peopled by " noble savages ", similar to the philosophical theory of Rousseau , exemplified by Uncas , from The Last of the Mohicans.

There are picturesque "local color" elements in Washington Irving's essays and especially his travel books. Edgar Allan Poe 's tales of the macabre and his balladic poetry were more influential in France than at home, but the romantic American novel developed fully with the atmosphere and melodrama of Nathaniel Hawthorne 's The Scarlet Letter Later Transcendentalist writers such as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson still show elements of its influence and imagination, as does the romantic realism of Walt Whitman.

The poetry of Emily Dickinson —nearly unread in her own time—and Herman Melville 's novel Moby-Dick can be taken as epitomes of American Romantic literature. By the s, however, psychological and social realism were competing with Romanticism in the novel. The European Romantic movement reached America in the early 19th century.

American Romanticism was just as multifaceted and individualistic as it was in Europe. The poet appears to become involved in the life of the urn and then returns to the position of the observer. However, the use of the words cold pastural creates a paradox, an opposite as this pertains to the rural life of shepherds connotations of a simple and peaceful life.

Again a contrast to the image of the Bachanalian ritual. Also notice the use of the word tease in line Looking at the poem as a whole, notice how much of the text takes the form of the couplet thus allowing the flowing rhythm of the prose. The rhyming scheme of the poem is highlighted by the punctuation and the use of indentations.

Notice too that each stanza is made up of ten lines each of approximately the same length. This leads us to the discussion of the voice within the poem. It could be here that Keats is casting a philosophical eye on life in general and not merely on the life depicted in context of the poem. Critics of this poem have stated that Keats is saying that art is superior to nature.

Whether this statement can be agreed with would depend on whether or not the reader considers Keats to be discussing the urn simply as a piece of art or with a deeper appreciation.

Robert from Artscolumbia Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? He attempted to woo patrons to his side, yet his unstable temper made him rather difficult to work with professionally. Some considered him mad. In addition to writing poetry of the first order, Blake was also a master engraver. His greatest contributions to Romantic literature were his self-published, quasi-mythological illustrated poetry collections.

Gloriously colored and painstaking in their design, few of these were produced and fewer still survive to the present day. However, the craft and genius behind a work like The Marriage of Heaven and Hell cannot be ignored. If one could identify a single voice as the standard-bearer of Romantic sensibilities, that voice would belong to William Wordsworth. His publication of Lyrical Ballads in is identified by many as the opening act of the Romantic Period in English literature.

It was a hugely successful work, requiring several reprinting over the years. The dominant theme of Lyrical Ballads was Nature, specifically the power of Nature to create strong impressions in the mind and imagination. There is the sense that past, present, and future all mix together in the human consciousness. One feels as though the poet and the landscape are in communion, each a partner in an act of creative production. Wordsworth quite deliberately turned his back on the Enlightenment traditions of poetry, specifically the work of Alexander Pope.

He instead looked more to the Renaissance and the Classics of Greek and Latin epic poetry for inspiration. His work was noted for its accessibility. The undeniable commercial success of Lyrical Ballads does not diminish the profound effect it had on an entire generation of aspiring writers. In the United State, Romanticism found its voice in the poets and novelists of the American Renaissance. The concentration on the individual mind gradually shifted from an optimistic brand of spiritualism into a more modern, cynical study of the underside of humanity.

The political unrest in mid-nineteenth century America undoubtedly played a role in the development of a darker aesthetic. At the same time, strongly individualist religious traditions played a large part in the development of artistic creations. The Protestant work ethic, along with the popularity and fervor of American religious leaders, fed a literary output that was undergird with fire and brimstone.

The middle of the nineteenth century has only in retrospect earned the label of the American Renaissance in literature. No one alive in the s quite realized the flowering of creativity that was underway. In fact, the novelists who today are regarded as classic were virtually unknown during their lifetimes.

The novelists working during this period, particularly Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville, were crafting densely symbolic and original pieces of literature that nonetheless relied heavily upon the example of English Romanticism. However, there work was in other respects a clean break with any permutation of Romanticism that had come before. There was a darkness to American Romanticism that was clearly distinct from the English examples of earlier in the century.

Herman Melville died penniless and unknown, a failed writer who recognized his own brilliance even when others did not. In novels like Benito Cereno and Moby Dick , Melville employed a dense fabric of hinted meanings and symbols that required close reading and patience. With Moby Dick , Melville displays his research acumen, as in the course of the novel the reader learns more than they thought possible about whales and whaling.

The novel itself is dark, mysterious, and hints at the supernatural. Superficially, the novel is a revenge tale, but over and above the narrative are meditations of madness, power, and the nature of being human.

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His later religious writings made a considerable impact on Victorian readers. Other poets of the early Romantic period In his own lifetime, Blake’s poetry was scarcely known.

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Furthermore, several romantic authors, such as Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne, based their writings on the supernatural/occult and human psychology. Romanticism tended to regard satire as something unworthy of serious attention, a prejudice still influential today.

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Romantic writings Perhaps this is because although the urn exists in a real world that is subject to change and the effects of time that the images depict remain unaffected. Not also the phase ” sylvan historian” in line 3, whilst not answering any of the poet’s questions, does have a message depending on how you interpret the, final stanza. In America, the Romantic Movement was slightly delayed and modulated, holding sway over arts and letters from roughly up to the Civil War. Contrary to the English example, American literature championed the novel as the most fitting genre for Romanticism’s exposition.