There are three dimensions within typical explanations, which include internal versus external, stable versus unstable, and global versus specific. Optimistic justifications toward negative experiences are attributed to factors outside the self external , are not likely to occur consistently unstable , and are limited specific life domains specific. Positive experiences would be optimistically labeled as the opposite: There is much debate about the relationship between explanatory style and optimism.
Some researchers argue that there is not much difference at all; optimism is just the lay term for what scientists call explanatory style. Philosophers often link concept of optimism with the name of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who held that we live in the best of all possible worlds, or that God created a physical universe that applies the laws of physics, which Voltaire famously mocked in his satirical novel Candide.
The philosophical pessimism of William Godwin demonstrated perhaps even more optimism than Leibniz. He hoped that society would eventually reach the state where calm reason would replace all violence and force, that mind could eventually make matter subservient to it, and that intelligence could discover the secret of immortality.
The panglossian paradigm is a term coined by Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin to refer to the notion that everything has specifically adapted to suit specific purposes. Instead, they argue, accidents and exaptation the use of old features for new purposes play an important role in the process of evolution. Some other scientists however argue the implication that many or most adaptionists are panglossians is a straw man.
Why People Believe Weird Things: Shermer explores the psychology of scholars and business men who give up their careers in their pursuit to broadcast their paranormal beliefs. Optimalism, as defined by Nicholas Rescher, holds that this universe exists because it is better than the alternatives. They cannot accept failures, delaying any ambitious and productive behavior in fear of failure again. As an alternative to negative perfectionism Ben-Shahar suggests the adoption of optimalism.
Optimalism allows for failure in pursuit of a goal, and expects that while the trend of activity will tend towards the positive it is not necessary to always succeed while striving to attain goals. This basis in reality prevents the optimalist from being overwhelmed in the face of failure. Tal Ben-Shahar believes that Optimalists and Perfectionists show distinct different motives. Optimalists tend to have more intrinsic, inward desires, with a motivation to learn.
While perfectionists are highly motivated by a need to consistently prove themselves worthy. Designed by Scheier and Carver , this is one of the more popular tests of optimism and pessimism. All three are most commonly used because they are based on dispositional optimism, which simply means expecting positive outcomes. This questionnaire created by Peterson et al. Research has emerged showing the relationships between several psychological constructs and health.
For example, optimists smoke less, are more physically active, consume more fruit, vegetables and whole-grain bread, and consume more moderate amounts of alcohol. The relationship between optimism and health has also been studied with regards to physical symptoms, coping strategies and negative affect for those suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and fibromyalgia. Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article.
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Meaning, knowledge, and warm fuzziness.
Optimism Definition. Optimism is a mental attitude or world view that interprets situations and events as being best (optimized), meaning that in some way for factors that may not be fully comprehended, the present moment is in an optimum state.
Definition Essay: Optimism. History: Optimism. Originated from the Latin term “optimum”. Optimum is “a condition, degree, amount or compromise that produces the best possible result.”. Other use of word: Philosophical Doctrine titled "Optimism" - written by Voltaire.
Definition Essay: Optimism as Cornerstone of Success The common definition of Optimism is the "inclination to look at the bright side of any situation and expect the best possible outcome from The first definition of optimism is that it is common skill or an attribute that all of us have. Optimism is a tool that keeps us happy. Check out our top Free Essays on Definition Of Optimism to help you write your own Essay.
Optimism definition refers to positive expectations of an individual about the future, which results in the focus on good outcomes rather than negative ones. A Life of Optimism Essay. Words 3 Pages. Dispositional optimism by definition is a general expectation that more good things than bad will occur. Optimistic behavior can give people positive insights, therefore making .