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The awkward case of 'his or her'. Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something along the way. Build a city of skyscrapers—one synonym at a time. Explore the year a word first appeared. Definition of ontology 1: Recent Examples of ontology from the Web With a prolific career including more than 90 works, Lin developed his own choreographic style blending Western dance with Eastern ontology.
Emezi describes this elaborate ontology in raw, sensual terms, steeping us in the smells and sights of her mythic world with incantatory lines that bring the ineffable to life. Why credit them with some kind of genius secret plan when the ontology of the executive order seems plainly apparent? But that would require buying many tickets and sitting through many, many hours of people translating medieval ontology into arch latter-day vernacular, saying what is essentially the same thing again and again and again.
That said, ontology is crucial for the axiomatic language frameworks. Whitehead , for ontology, it is useful to distinguish the terms 'reality' and 'actuality'. In this view, an 'actual entity' has a philosophical status of fundamental ontological priority, while a 'real entity' is one which may be actual, or may derive its reality from its logical relation to some actual entity or entities.
For example, an occasion in the life of Socrates is an actual entity. But Socrates' being a man does not make 'man' an actual entity, because it refers indeterminately to many actual entities, such as several occasions in the life of Socrates, and also to several occasions in the lives of Alcibiades, and of others.
But the notion of man is real; it derives its reality from its reference to those many actual occasions, each of which is an actual entity. An actual occasion is a concrete entity, while terms such as 'man' are abstractions from many concrete relevant entities. According to Whitehead, an actual entity must earn its philosophical status of fundamental ontological priority by satisfying several philosophical criteria, as follows.
Whitehead proposed that his notion of an occasion of experience satisfies the criteria for its status as the philosophically preferred definition of an actual entity. From a purely logical point of view, each occasion of experience has in full measure the characters of both objective and subjective reality. Subjectivity and objectivity refer to different aspects of an occasion of experience, and in no way do they exclude each other.
Aristotle's substances, such as Socrates, have behind them as more fundamental the 'primary substances', and in this sense do not satisfy Whitehead's criteria. Whitehead is not happy with Leibniz' monads as actual entities because they are "windowless" and do not cause each other. States of affairs are contingent on particulars, and therefore have something behind them.
Another summary, referring to its causal linkage to other actual entities, is that it is "all window", in contrast with Leibniz' windowless monads. This view allows philosophical entities other than actual entities to really exist, but not as fundamentally and primarily factual or causally efficacious; they have existence as abstractions, with reality only derived from their reference to actual entities.
A Whiteheadian actual entity has a unique and completely definite place and time. Whiteheadian abstractions are not so tightly defined in time and place, and in the extreme, some are timeless and placeless, or 'eternal' entities. All abstractions have logical or conceptual rather than efficacious existence; their lack of definite time does not make them unreal if they refer to actual entities.
Whitehead calls this 'the ontological principle'. There is an established and long philosophical history of the concept of atoms as microscopic physical objects. They are far too small to be visible to the naked eye.
It was as recent as the nineteenth century that precise estimates of the sizes of putative physical atoms began to become plausible. Almost direct empirical observation of atomic effects was due to the theoretical investigation of Brownian motion by Albert Einstein in the very early twentieth century.
But even then, the real existence of atoms was debated by some. Such debate might be labeled 'microcosmic ontology'. Here the word 'microcosm' is used to indicate a physical world of small entities, such as for example atoms. Subatomic particles are usually considered to be much smaller than atoms. Their real or actual existence may be very difficult to demonstrate empirically. Reasonably, one may ask, in what sense, if any, do virtual particles exist as physical entities?
For atomic and subatomic particles, difficult questions arise, such as do they possess a precise position, or a precise momentum? A question that continues to be controversial is 'to what kind of physical thing, if any, does the quantum mechanical wave function refer?
The first ontological argument in the Western Christian tradition  was proposed by Anselm of Canterbury in his work Proslogion. Anselm defined God as "that than which nothing greater can be thought", and argued that this being must exist in the mind, even in the mind of the person who denies the existence of God.
He suggested that, if the greatest possible being exists in the mind, it must also exist in reality. If it only exists in the mind, then an even greater being must be possible—one which exists both in the mind and in reality. Therefore, this greatest possible being must exist in reality. Descartes published several variations of his argument, each of which centred on the idea that God's existence is immediately inferable from a "clear and distinct" idea of a supremely perfect being.
In the early eighteenth century, Gottfried Leibniz augmented Descartes' ideas in an attempt to prove that a "supremely perfect" being is a coherent concept. Norman Malcolm revived the ontological argument in when he located a second, stronger ontological argument in Anselm's work; Alvin Plantinga challenged this argument and proposed an alternative, based on modal logic. Attempts have also been made to validate Anselm's proof using an automated theorem prover.
Other arguments have been categorised as ontological, including those made by Islamic philosophers Mulla Sadra and Allama Tabatabai. Jaakko Hintikka puts the view that a useful explication of the notion of existence is in the words "one can find", implicitly in some world or universe of discourse. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about ontology in philosophy. For the concept in information science and computing, see Ontology information science.
Not to be confused with Oncology , Odontology , Ontogeny , or Deontology. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. September Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Abhidharma Applied ontology Foundation ontology Geopolitical ontology Guerrilla ontology Hauntology Holism Living educational theory Mereology Metamodeling Modal logic Monadology Nihilism Ontological paradox Philosophy of mathematics Philosophy of science Philosophy of space and time Physical ontology Porphyrian tree Quantum ontology Solipsism Speculative realism Structure and agency Subject—object problem. Yearbook of the History of the Metaphysics , 9, , pp.
Lectures on Quantum Theory: Process ontology in the context of applied philosophy". In Vesselin Petrov, ed. The Ionian Tradition of Scientific Philosophy". Contributions to social ontology. Ontological Design in Practice". In Tony Fry and Eleni Kalantidou. Design in the Borderlands. A Heideggerian Perspective on Interpersonal Communication". State University of New York Press, The individual and the social self: Unpublished work of George Herbert Mead D.
University of Chicago Press, Objects and Their Environments: Taylor and Francis, , Unterwegs zur Sprache Neske, Pfullingen Introduction to an Ontology of Intellectual Property. Proceedings and Address of the American Philosophical Association. Two defenses of common-sense ontology PDF.
Physical-object ontology, verbal disputes and common sense". Quantifier Variance and Realism: Quantifier variance and realism". In John Greco, ed. Ernest Sosa and His Critics. Niels Bohr's legacy in contemporary particle physics, pp.
The first was in 11th century, when St. Anselm of Canterbury came up with the first ontological argument. Articles Related to Ontology. Christian philosophy Scholasticism Thomism Renaissance humanism. Kyoto School Objectivism Russian cosmism more Formalism Institutionalism Aesthetic response. Atomism Dualism Monism Naturalism. Philosophy by region Philosophy-related lists Miscellaneous. Women in philosophy Sage philosophy. Axiology Cosmology Epistemology Feminist metaphysics Interpretations of quantum mechanics Meta- Ontology Philosophy of mind Philosophy of psychology Philosophy of self Philosophy of space and time Teleology Theoretical physics.
Intuitionistic logic Constructive analysis Heyting arithmetic Intuitionistic type theory Constructive set theory. Degree of truth Fuzzy rule Fuzzy set Fuzzy finite element Fuzzy set operations. Structural rule Relevance logic Linear logic.
Ontology is a system of belief that reflects an interpretation of an individual about what constitutes a fact. In simple terms, ontology is associated with a central question of whether social ent.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the most relevant features of qualitative research in order to show how, from the Epistemology of the Known Subject perspective I propose, it is necessary to review first the ontological and then the epistemological grounds of this type of inquiry.
Ontological research, - Developing hypothesis. Meeting the deadline is one of the main requirements for any paper — so our essay writing service guarantees that you get your essay before the deadline. What on earth are Ontology and Epistemology? Dr Sally Vanson I am an NLP Master Trainer, sit on the accreditation panel of ANLP, the Research Committee of ICF and am CEO of The Performance Solution where as well as training professional coaches to get accreditation through ICF, we have designed, developed and run the world’s.
Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Assumptions: Qualitative Versus Quantitative Abdelhamid Ahmed Assistant Lecturer at The Curriculum & Instruction Dept. Contemporary ontology is a partnership of multiple disciplines. On the one hand ontological research involves philosophers who are concerned to describe broad categories of .