Niles Eldredge Species vs. Time In this example, a snail species, A, is isolated by a geographic barrier to form subspecies X and Y. Eventually, this geographic separation leads to genetic isolation, and two distinct new species, B and C, form.
Phacops rana A fully articulated trilobite and a well-preserved trilobite head from Dr. Evolution of the Trilobite This sequence shows how the continental seas of North America waxed and waned over a seven million year interval during the Devonian Period million years ago.
The white circles indicate some of the more important localities where the trilobite, Phacops rana , were found by Dr. Punctuated Equilibria Here are two models of speciation: Seminars on Science offers easy-to-use online courses designed around your busy schedule. Gould has been to the USA, its finest teacher of evolution. Equally witty and pugnacious, I consider Dr. Dawkins' essay The Forty-fold Path to Enlightenment in his book Climbing Mount Improbable one of the finest pieces of writing in natural history.
An Open Letter to Prince Charles: Your Reith lecture saddened me. I have deep sympathy for your aims, and admiration for your sincerity. But your hostility to science will not serve those aims; and your embracing of an ill-assorted jumble of mutually contradictory alternatives will lose you the respect that I think you deserve. Papers and Commentary by Dawkins: This page contains many of Richard Dawkins' articles for news-papers, magazines, and so forth.
For his more academic work, you may find the bibliography page more useful. Click on a book cover to see reviews and purchasing details at Amazon. Could multiple species of early hominids have existed side by side? Ignorance Is No Crime: It is absolutely safe to say that if you meet somebody who claims not to believe in evolution, that person is ignorant, stupid or insane or wicked, but I'd rather not consider that. Ruse is a polymathic philosopher and historian of science, particularly with respect to the history of evolutionary thought.
Based largely on his testimony, "Creation Science" was defeated in Arkansas in as being devoid of science. His book Can a Darwinian be a Christian should be required reading for all fundamentalists. A Marriage Made in Heaven? Somewhat immodestly let me elevate myself up to the status of Wilson, Dawkins, Dennett, and Lewontin, and consider a Darwinism-based argument which I have myself put forward against Christian belief.
Speaking Out for Paleontology: Out at supper that night, someone struck up a hymn. No voice was louder than that of Stephen Jay Gould: The new Creationists have recently started to break from their strategy of unrelenting attack.
Thanks to biochemist Michael J. The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution , they have started to lift the veil from their own beliefs about origins qua science.
Are intellectuals allowing dogma in science but not in religion? Is Darwin in the Details? Allen Orr's critique of Darwin's Black Box is devastating and, assuming that there are some out there who find the book plausible and yet have open minds, might do some good. For me, although I did not need convincing, there is the sheer pleasure in seeing an expert in his field take on the ignorant and arrogantly presumptuous. However, I do feel that Orr failed to raise the most important issue of all: Did Behe have the right, in the first place, to appeal to design?
Forsdyke is unusual among modern essayists in science. While he has published a great deal in technical journals of science and has two recent books to his credit, his work as an essayist is presented almost exclusively on his own academic website in well written and highly illustrated pages. It is to be hoped that this body of work will survive his tenure in academia. Selected Papers and Commentary: At the bottom of this page you will find a number of links to historical essays by Darwin, Hooker and others that Dr.
Forsdyke has presented beautifully on his website. This amounts to a good introductory course in genetics. Theoretical Biology , . Given the great pharmaceutical industry interest in genes, this trend has continued in most subsequent texts. These deal extensively with the exciting topic of gene discovery and searching databases, but hardly consider genomes as information channels through which multiple forms and levels of information, including genic information, have passed through the generations.
This book identifies the types of information that genomes transmit, shows how competition between different types is resolved in the genomes of different organisms, and identifies the evolutionary forces involved.
The early chapters relate the form of information with which we are most familiar, namely written texts, to the DNA text that is our genome. This lends itself well to introducing historical aspects dating back to the nineteenth century. Founded the discipline of Sociobiology, more commonly called Evolutionary Psychology today, and cofounded the study of island biogeography.
A Global Biodiversity Map: Commentary in Science As genomics and biomedicine are to human health, so ecology and conservation biology are to the planet's health. Unfortunately, compared with their sister disciplines, ecology and conservation biology are still disadvantaged. We have entered the Century of the Environment, in which the immediate future is usefully conceived as a bottleneck: Do we invent our moral absolutes in order to make society workable?
Or are these enduring principles expressed to us by some transcendent or Godlike authority? Efforts to resolve this conundrum have perplexed, sometimes inflamed, our best minds for centuries, but the natural sciences are telling us more and more about the choices we make and our reasons for making them. The Future of Life: The totality of life, known as the biosphere to scientists and creation to theologians, is a membrane of organisms wrapped around Earth so thin it cannot be seen edgewise from a space shuttle, yet so internally complex that most species composing it remain undiscovered.
Mayr helped establish the neodarwinian synthesis and was a tireless teacher of evolution. His work, combined with that of Dobzhansky and Simpson who are also represented here, established the basis for the modern theory of evolution. Ernst Mayr died on February 3, , at the age of What is a Species, and What is Not? The Old Man of American Biology reviews the variety of species concepts, especially his Biological Species Concept, and responds to his critics.
Originally published in Philosophy of Science Speciational Evolution or Punctuated Equilibria: The widespread neglect of the role of speciation in macroevolution continued until Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould proposed their theory of punctuated equilibria. Whether one accepts this theory, rejects it, or greatly modifies it, there can be no doubt that it had a major impact on paleontology and evolutionary biology. Great minds shape the thinking of successive historical periods.
Modern thought is most dependent on the influence of Charles Darwin. See my separate page What Evolution Is for commentary about Dr. Mayr, more of his essays, and a complete list of his books. Simpson was a paleontologist and taxonomist whose influential text The Principles of Classification and a Classification of the Mammals  remained the standard for treatment of the subject for many years.
His was the last of a series of major publications, by authors from several different disciplines, that became known as the neodarwinian synthesis, the foundation for modern-day evolutionary biology. Relationships of Local and Continental Mammalian Faunas: Antarctica as a Faunal Migration Route: Mammals and Land Bridges: Mammals and the Nature of Continents: Dobzhansky emigrated to the USA where his research with fruit flies led to many publications in genetics. He was one of the principle founders of the neodarwinian synthesis and trained many students in biology, genetics and evolutionary theory.
In contradististinction to some other noted scientists of his time, Dr. Dhobzhansky never relinquished his religious orthodoxy. Evolution in the Tropics: American Scientist 38 2: Natural selection augments the frequency of favorable types and reduces the frequency of unfavorable types. Populations thus react to changes in their environment by adaptive modifications. This is one of the rare occasions when evolutionary changes taking place in nature under the influence of natural selection can actually be observed in the process of happening.
American Biology Teacher . Unfortunately, not many of his writings are currently on the Internet. Those that are tend toward his viewpoints on politics and religion. On Being the Right Size: Haldane's essay is widely anthologized and frequently quoted, at least when the subject of biological scaling crops up. Daedalus, or, Science and the Future: As I sit down to write these pages I can see before me two scenes from my experience of the late war.
The first is a glimpse of a forgotten battle of It has a curious suggestion of a rather bad cinema film. Evolution is pretty generally accepted as an historical fact. But some biologists and many popularizers of biology believe that Darwin's account of how and why it happened is incorrect.
This is of course true in one sense. Darwin was not infallible. Transitional fossils are the remains of intermediary forms of life that illustrate an evolutionary transition.
Such fossils would serve as evidence to the principle that life is developed through evolving organisms, which again, points to one ancestral source. Some examples are the Nautoloidea, this is a group of marine cephalopods belong to the subclass Nautioidea. This is one of the many examples of one transitional forms discovered through fossils linking one species to another. Examples of these links are fish to tetra pods, amphibians to amniotes, and dinosaurs to birds.
Transitional forms are a major support of evolution Fossils through fossil dating, hominoid fossils, and living fossils shed much light to evolution and its validity. Although it only covers a small section of the multi-faceted theory, it is a crucial one.
Fossils can be used as a testament to the gradual changes in nature and in mankind. It also shows that the world is extremel. Are you sure you want to delete this answer?
This is a really good essay. I am doubly impressed that you were able to research this with very little help from your school and teacher who apparently treat evolution like like an unpleasant but unavoidable pair of smelly socks they have to deal with.
So this idea that they teach kids nothing about it other than to send them out to get "education by Internet" and return with reasons why one of the core principles of science are wrong, is just a HORRIBLE approach to education.
But you have seen past that and seem to have found some good sources. Darwin's theory explains WHY evolution change occurs. His theory is called 'natural selection', which you don't cover and that's fine. By the way, here's a source you can cite for that definition: This is only one small part of the evidence for evolution.
The DNA evidence alone is enough to establish common ancestry between species, even if not a single fossil had ever been found! However, I notice from your other post, that you seem to be required to limit your essay to just fossils. I would reword this as " I really like how you laid out the structure of your essay, and then re-established that structure in the first and last sentence of each paragraph.
Your school may not teach science well, but they are teaching the basics of good essay writing. You prove things in math, not science. The word "shows" would work just as well here. Oh, and its "than creationists", not "then creationist". Scientists would call it a 'primitive bird', or better, 'bird-like dinosaur'. Second, you have not established what the Origin of Species is, or when it was published, or why this is relevant So you have to say something like: So this fossil provided powerful evidence for Darwin's framework.
You jump back a couple of times between the words 'hominoid' and 'hominid'. Hominoids are the apes, hominids are the great apes, so either one would do. The roots of humanity are located in Eastern Africa, not South Africa which is a country. For example, Ethiopia is in Eastern Africa. Ditto with last sentence of next paragraph. That's not quite true. But if you read the full quote, you can see he wasn't.
He had an answer. Search for "gravest objection".
This essay will focus on: the early evolution of our eukaryote ancestor during Precambrian period, plastids origin along the algae family due to second endosymbiosis; discuss the evidence that supports the theory, including further examples of endosymbiosis.
May 16, · Evolution Essay Evolution is the theory that all living forms came from ancient ancestors. Through a series of mutations, genetic drift, migration, and natural selection today’s descendants show an amazing amount of similarities and diversity.
Essay on Evolution There are many mechanisms that lead to evolutionary change. One of the most important mechanism in evolution is natural selection which is the differential success in the reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from the interaction of organisms with their environment. Sample Essay - Week 4: Speciation and the Fossil Record This essay was developed for the AMNH online course Evolution. Evolution is a part of Seminars on Science, a program of online graduate-level professional development courses for K educators.
An essay on evolution can be quite an interesting topic to work on. It is a topic that is being debated upon a lot in many academic circles. Evolution essays are details of different theories proposed by academicians who are advocates of different schools of thoughts. Creationism vs. evolution essay is popular for evolution research papers. Essays in Natural History and Evolution: THE ESSAY in science is an art form as well as a means of communicating ideas. All scientists publish their findings somewhere, but relatively few produce books or monographs. Even fewer produce essays.