Thanks a millions time. I was struggling to get an idea of how to approach the definitions. In fact I was even hesitating to answer the questions confidently. Thanks for the distinct comparison between qualitative and quantitative Research, very very helpful. Thank you for making me to understand the difference between qualitative Research and quantitative research. Thanks a lot for the insightful distinction between Qualitative and Quantitative research.
However, the differences as you enumerated did not factor in the advantages and disadvantages of both research tools.
My special thanks goes to Camilo Tabinas for suggesting that the difference between quantitative and qualitative research method stems from the roots of quantity and quality.
Quantitative approach stems from the ontological view that objective reality exist independently of human perception Slevitch, Qualitative and quantitative methodologies compared: Ontological and Epistemological Perspectives. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism, 12, Qualitative research is inductive , descriptive research, how ever some researcher use both inductive and deductive depends on the nature and purpose of the research the hyposis you intend to examine.
Where quantitive research is statistical numerical based research empirical. Keep it up GOOD people! I am grateful about how qualitative and quantitative differences have been defined in the research field. Quantitative data is any data that is in numerical form such as statistics, percentages, etc.
Qualitative research , on the other hand, inquires deeply into specific experiences, with the intention of describing and exploring meaning through text, narrative, or visual-based data, by developing themes exclusive to that set of participants. Research in mathematical sciences, such as physics , is also "quantitative" by definition, though this use of the term differs in context. In the social sciences, the term relates to empirical methods, originating in both philosophical positivism and the history of statistics , which contrast with qualitative research methods.
Qualitative research produces information only on the particular cases studied, and any more general conclusions are only hypotheses. Quantitative methods can be used to verify which of such hypotheses are true.
A comprehensive analysis of articles published in the top two American sociology journals between and found that roughly two thirds of these articles used quantitative method. Quantitative research is generally closely affiliated with ideas from 'the scientific method' , which can include:.
Quantitative research is often contrasted with qualitative research , which purports to be focused more on discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationships, including classifications of types of phenomena and entities, in a manner that does not involve mathematical models. Although a distinction is commonly drawn between qualitative and quantitative aspects of scientific investigation, it has been argued that the two go hand in hand. Although quantitative investigation of the world has existed since people first began to record events or objects that had been counted, the modern idea of quantitative processes have their roots in Auguste Comte 's positivist framework.
Positivist scholars like Comte believed only scientific methods rather than previous spiritual explanations for human behavior could advance. Quantitative methods are an integral component of the five angles of analysis fostered by the data percolation methodology,  which also includes qualitative methods, reviews of the literature including scholarly , interviews with experts and computer simulation, and which forms an extension of data triangulation.
Quantitative methods have limitations. These studies do not provide reasoning behind participants' responses, they often do not reach underrepresented populations, and they may span long periods in order to collect the data.
Statistics is the most widely used branch of mathematics in quantitative research outside of the physical sciences, and also finds applications within the physical sciences, such as in statistical mechanics. Statistical methods are used extensively within fields such as economics, social sciences and biology. Quantitative research using statistical methods starts with the collection of data, based on the hypothesis or theory. Usually a big sample of data is collected — this would require verification, validation and recording before the analysis can take place.
Causal relationships are studied by manipulating factors thought to influence the phenomena of interest while controlling other variables relevant to the experimental outcomes. In the field of health, for example, researchers might measure and study the relationship between dietary intake and measurable physiological effects such as weight loss, controlling for other key variables such as exercise. Quantitatively based opinion surveys are widely used in the media, with statistics such as the proportion of respondents in favor of a position commonly reported.
In opinion surveys, respondents are asked a set of structured questions and their responses are tabulated. In the field of climate science, researchers compile and compare statistics such as temperature or atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Empirical relationships and associations are also frequently studied by using some form of general linear model , non-linear model, or by using factor analysis.
Though there is no standardized structure, this type of study still needs to be carefully constructed and designed. Researchers need to continually ensure they are conducting bias-free, open-ended technique and staying alert to potential sources of error. This usually involves awareness of bias and deep sensitivity to the phenomenon in question. When to use the Qualitative Research Design.
Qualitative techniques are extremely useful when a subject is too complex be encapsulated by a simple yes or no hypothesis. While quantitative data reveals simple linear relationships between discrete variables, qualitative techniques yield data that is richer and more insightful into underlying reasons and patterns within phenomena.
Qualitative research is often more practicable when budgets are small and sample sizes are restricted.
If a large number of participants cannot be secured for a quantitative study, the few available participants can be better understood with in-depth interviews. For example, if there are only three people in a town who qualify as subjects for a study, it might make more sense to conduct comprehensive interviews with them, i. The nature of qualitative research designs means that some useful data is always generated, whereas an unproved hypothesis in a quantitative experiment can mean that a lot of time has been wasted.
In qualitative research, it is not a problem if the research develops in an unexpected direction. In fact, the researchers are usually pleased with whatever they discover, and deliberately try to avoid going in with any expectations.
Finally, qualitative research methods are not as dependent upon sample sizes as quantitative methods; case studies, for example, can generate meaningful results with just a small sample group. Qualitative research experiments can be time- and resource-consuming compared to quantitative experiments. A researcher may need to be present for hundreds of grueling hour-long interviews, whereas a quantitative study using a questionnaire can be completed in an afternoon.
Qualitative methods also require plenty of careful thought and planning throughout the study. Researchers have to be far more sensitive to ethical issues, bias and the philosophical underpinnings of their research question than those undertaking quantitative studies.
Qualitative data cannot be mathematically analyzed in the same comprehensive way as quantitative results — in fact their analysis and interpretation can become arduous. Qualitative data is a lot more open to personal bias and judgment, and so care must be taken to present the final results appropriately:
Qualitative research is a scientific method of observation to gather non-numerical data. This type of research "refers to the meanings, concepts definitions, characteristics, metaphors, symbols, and description of things" and not to their "counts or measures.".
Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in data collection, online surveys, paper surveys, quantifiable research, and quantifiable data.
Qualitative research is designed to reveal a target audience’s range of behavior and the perceptions that drive it with reference to specific topics or issues. It uses in-depth studies of small groups of people to guide and support the construction of hypotheses. About this journal. Qualitative Research (QRJ) is a bimonthly peer reviewed journal that publishes original research and review articles on the methodological diversity and multi-disciplinary focus of qualitative research. The journal is edited by Bella Dicks, Karen Henwood, William Housley and Book Reviews Editor Robin Smith.
What is qualitative research and how can we define it? In the handbook of qualitative research Denzin and Lincoln () describe qualitative research as involving “ an interpretive naturalistic approach to the world. Qualitative Research is ideal for earlier phases of research projects while for the latter part of the research project, Quantitative Research is highly recommended. Quantitative Research provides the researcher a clearer picture of what to expect in his research compared to Qualitative Research.