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Guidelines for Qualitative Papers

Social Science & Medicine

❶However, if in your study you wish to explain further why this particular event happened, or why this particular phenomenon is the case, then you should make use of Qualitative Research.

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In qualitative research, the researcher seeks to cultivate a closer relationship with the subject s. This means that the researcher focuses on a single or a small number of subjects, and utilises designs that allow closer interaction with the subjects such as in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. Cultivating a closer relationship with the subjects is informed by the need to gain a deeper understanding of the research phenomenon Denscombe, This arises from the assertion that knowledge is subjective Bryman, In other words, different individuals tend to have different meanings and worldviews about a given phenomenon.

The role of the researcher, therefore, is to understand the unique interpretation a subject holds about…… [Read More]. Research Approaches in Education. Educational Leadership Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities.

In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used.

Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown Lewis, The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.

Introduction The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…… [Read More].

Research Paper Topic and Annotated Bibliography. Selection of Research Paper Topic An analysis of the link between hopefulness, quality of life QOL and internalized stigma among autistic kids' parents is the objective of the current research. Autism impacts the patient as well as their parents, who require wide-ranging support services. Therefore, when catering to special needs kids and developing interventions and initiatives for autism-diagnosed kids, mental healthcare providers and social workers need to consider parental mental health status.

Stigma internalization represents a process wherein patients' family members might exhibit elevated negative emotions, withdrawal from society, negative self-assessment and…… [Read More].

Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research.

The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.

Research Assumptions Regarding Human Trafficking. At first, I conducted a literature review of my topic human trafficking to establish that there is a recorded tendency that women are more likely to be trafficked than men. But after exploring the data collection process further of these research studies, I began to understand that certain factors can affect even statistical evidence, such as the fact that certain forms of trafficking may be more likely to be detected than other forms.

For example, women seem to be more apt to be trafficked into the sex industry. This highlighted that there will likely always be gaps in whatever data that…… [Read More]. Research Proposal for Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing. Sustainability Perspective Many individuals from developing countries who could benefit from pharmaceuticals products do not receive them due to high costs. Antiretroviral therapy's failure in reaching more than scant numbers of individuals in developing nations, suffering from AIDS, has drawn extensive publicity.

However, even far cheaper medications that can be delivered easily aren't reaching numerous individuals who require them. Over a fourth of children all over the world and more than half of the children in a few nations do not receive vaccines, which come under the World Health Organization's WHO's Expanded Program on Immunization. Even though these vaccines only cost a family under a dollar a dose, they still cannot afford the medicine. The lack of access to beneficial pharmaceutical products and the…… [Read More].

These social constructs are lacking in preceding approaches, which indicates a certain level of inefficiency. Taking this into account, the authors make the hypothesis that an all-inclusive indicator system is required as tool for analysis to examine the sustainability of the German energy system in addition to supporting the advancement of resilient political approaches for an efficacious energy transition Rosch et al.

How would you describe the purpose of the study - What was the major purpose of the study -- descriptive, explanatory investigating causal relationships? The purpose of this study is to make a contribution to the debate regarding indicators necessitated for making…… [Read More]. PICOT Format In the United States, The COP Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of top serious diseases that places a great burden on patients and healthcare system because it is associated with high rate of outpatients visit, hospitalization and readmission.

The UK is facing similar problem where 1. However, the prevalence of the COP disease is likely to rise because of an increase in the ageing population.

The telehealth is an…… [Read More]. Qualitative language, that is language that is not quantifiable and thus dwells in the realm of the sort of academic criticism and research "that produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical procedures or other means of quantification," remains a critical mode of expression, even in areas of study of the social sciences where "hard data" is a must.

Qualitative analysis results in a different type of knowledge than does quantitative inquiry. But one must take precautions to make sure that the subjective nature of qualitative language does not impede, but rather facilitates understanding of a subject. To take just one example of how the qualitative association of words, can skew…… [Read More]. Qualitative Versus Quantitative Analysis. Market researcher, there are a number of different research methods available.

The first basic classification for research methods is the difference between qualitative and quantitative research. Quantitative research is based on numbers, while qualitative is not. This difference has implications in particular with respect to the way the data is analyzed, but there are also implications for how it is gathered as well.

Examples of qualitative research methods are interviews, focus groups, surveys and reviews of primary source documents. Quantitative methods can also be done with surveys and interviews depending on the question, but also can reflect on market data such as sales and market share OAU. The reason market researchers use these different methodologies is that they are best used in different situations. For example, the techniques that are used in quantitative research are discrete and often are replicable.

The downside to quantitative methods is that there is…… [Read More]. Education Ndunda defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems.

This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined. Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions.

In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem.

In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information. The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…… [Read More]. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23 , This particular research piece is quantitative in nature. The basic analysis element in a study of this kind as Keele points out is statistical analyses and numbers. This is more so the case given that it generates data that could be transmuted into operational statistics, as it seeks to quantify the problem i.

I selected this topic due to its relevance to clinical practice. This is particularly the case given that there are very few published studies that have…… [Read More]. Self-Analysis of Research Bias. Statistical tests are usually used to establish the external validity of an instrument. In contrast, internal validity is the extent to which the instrument is internally valid based upon the results obtained within the sample.

An instrument may be…… [Read More]. Analyzing Qualitative Research Paper. Depression and anxiety are two of the most common mental health problems in the United States. These two conditions affect a significant percentage of the United States population, meaning that billions of dollars are spent every year to care for the conditions and related problems. Additionally, depression and anxiety are behind the significant declines in patient social functioning and well-being.

The two disorders have also been found to cause great suffering and pain to both patients and their close friends and family. In spite of the fact that proven treatments exist, both conditions remain undertreated izvi, The diagnosis and subsequent treatment of the disorders are made even more difficult by the fact that the two disorders share many signs and symptoms. Role of Research Problem in Choosing an. It also presents the research questions, methodology, and design that can be used by the researcher to analyze the research problem and proceed with his research study.

The third section of the paper identifies two major qualities of team leaders that contribute to successful leadership and explains strategies that organization leaders can implement to develop these two qualities in their team leaders in order to achieve maximum performance.

The paper also explains some advantages and disadvantages of these leadership skills or qualities. After the recent financial crisis hit the world markets, Vietnamese economy revived itself and became a market-oriented economy Vietnam Centre for Economic and Policy esearch, All its manufacturing, industrial, and trade sectors have seen tremendous…… [Read More].

Descrptive Design esearch Method and Design Proposal A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods.

Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures.

When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments Hodkinson, Most importantly, qualitative data methods…… [Read More].

Difficulties Empirical research is necessarily designed to provide a workable framework through which a researcher may test a hypothesized explanation for observable phenomena, but the two primary branches of scientific inquiry differ greatly in terms of the analytical scope and style employed throughout an experiment. While quantitative research is capable of recording, sorting and analyzing voluminous amounts of numerical data, from credit card usage rates for various tax brackets to the pace of population acceleration within a given demographic, this methodology is left lacking when researchers seek to explain the trends and configurations they have identified.

In order to develop informed explanations of behavioral patterns, emotional capacity, artistic inclination, and any number of similarly intangible phenomena, the use of qualitative research must be employed to ascertain the motivational processes used to determine basic decision making.

Although the traditional quantitative method of research is more widely known by laymen, with surveys,…… [Read More]. Justification for Mixed Methods Research. Thinking About Qualitative esearch Theory. Qualitative research approaches are grounded in theoretical frameworks that make certain assumptions about the world, about how qualitative research is best conducted, and about the type of research questions and solutions are acceptable for the research approach, and about the criteria that appropriate for trustworthiness which is the equivalent proof in quantitative research approaches.

When researchers take a qualitative approach, they consider the world to be socially constructed by people's individual perceptions. Qualitative researchers depend on respondents' accounts to provide explanations for observed behaviors and shared thoughts. The qualitative research approach does not begin with a hypothesis to be proven or disproved -- a…… [Read More].

Mixed Methods Research Study Each of the. Each of the three studies must have been published in a peer-reviewed journal. Analysis of a Qualitative Research Report: What is the problem the study was conducted to address? Many schools have not adopted new electronic-era media literacies into their core curricula, but understanding these new, evolving literacies is critical to understanding how students learn today, especially with regard to low-income students, for several reasons urner, , p.

Why is the problem an important one for someone in your discipline to study? If those students will be the workforce of the next generation, the workers we manage will need critical multi-media literacy skills…… [Read More].

Numerical Research That Can Be. This is yet another reason we cannot assume that data is 'objective' because it is quantitative in nature. For example, when constructing an experiment "an extreme groups design e. Conversely, doing an experiment 'in the field' is likely to yield a less statistically-significant impact because of the inability to control the extremity of the variables. Significance criteria, sample estimate, and effect size, can all influence…… [Read More]. Ethics in Research for Organizations of All.

Ethics in esearch For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level.

Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…… [Read More]. Designing a Research Project Over. The primary data collection is more useful to Mary. The reason why, is because they are focusing on real cases and statistics surrounding juvenile crime. This will make her findings and analysis more realistic by looking at the actual numbers.

Support your opinions with reasons. Qualitative research would be more suitable for this kind of project. This is because we are looking at the environment that these individuals are living in. At which point, we are seeking to address the underlying problems by: Sigma This Chapter Presents Research.

Unlike primary data that are time-consuming, the secondary data is less time consuming, and a research could collect secondary data to answer the research questions as well as achieving research objectives. Boslaug argues that the economy is the major advantage of secondary data. More importantly, the saving of time is another major advantage of secondary data. Since the data has already been collected and analyzed, the research only needs to collect the data for his or her research study.

Boslaug further points out that secondary data are characterized with the informed expertise, which may not be available with primary data. Despite the advantages that this research derives from secondary data, there are still disadvantages associated with secondary data. The secondary data may not be suitable to…… [Read More]. Is it Possible to Blend Qualitative Approaches. Managing Different Perspectives in the Literature One of the strengths of qualitative literature -- as well as one of its frustrations -- is its innate subjectivity.

Different authors may present the reader with different approaches, both of which can be equally valid and still be characterized as qualitative. The variety of perspectives offered on qualitative research from diverse sources allows the individual researcher to tailor his or her approach to the specific subject of his or her research study. Unlike a quantitative, statistical approach which requires passing certain mathematical tests to be valid, the validity of a qualitative approach depends on the needs of the specific study.

For example, for a primarily narrative qualitative study that is merely designed to showcase experiences, having a research question might not be particularly useful. However, for a grounded theory approach, a research question would likely be required to focus the research process and…… [Read More]. Ensuring Research Quality in Qualitative Studies. Falter in Quality The strength of the use of interviews as a data collection device is that they ensure a high rate of response; that the interviewer can tailor his or her response to the subjects' responses over the course of the interview; and the interviewer can clarify any ambiguous responses.

Problems with interviews can arise when the subjects make their responses conform to the unintentionally communicated expectations of the interviewer, based on a desire to 'please' the researcher. To ensure quality control in my process of interviewing I tried to adhere to a relatively similar script between interviews for comparison of subject responses. I did not want to be overly directive during the interview and only intervened if the subjects were confused and had no response to my queries.

I transcribed and recorded the interviews to ensure I was not missing any critical word choices that might be revelatory…… [Read More]. Social Sciences In General Qualitative. These individuals will be recruited via email, similar to that of the journal recruitment email.

However, the email will only detail that they have been selected to participate in a free shopping spree at a given time and place in appreciation for their loyal patronage.

Another possibility is to set up a drawing at the selected store. From the individuals who register, random participants can be selected. The experiment itself will utilize a simulated shopping environment will be set up. Half the participants will be bombarded with advertisements while shopping and prior to shopping such as having ads mailed and emailed to them.

The other half will not be bombarded with the advertisements for that particular brand and products. All other variables will be the same. After the experiment, the observer will be able to compare the purchases of the two groups to see if the advertisement group purchased the…… [Read More]. Mixing Methods Within Research Projects.

Niglas, Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows: What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?

Niglas, ryman reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types: Value of Shifting From Qualitative to Quantitative. Value of Shifting from Qualitative to Quantitative and Back Again Qualitative research is considered hypothesis generating, whereas quantitative research is designed to test hypotheses.

Qualitative research tends to focus on experiences, rather than the measuring and tracking of objective factors, but there are times when it makes sense to base a qualitative study on quantitative findings. This essay will examine the value of transitioning from qualitative to quantitative study designs and vice versa. Qualitative to Quantitative A qualitative study is traditionally conducted when little is understood about a phenomenon, such as the experiences of patients during treatment.

For example, Black and Fauske were interested in understanding the experiences and practices of case managers during advanced care planning. A focus group design was used to conduct semi-structured interviews,…… [Read More]. Nature of the Research and. Another Perspective The line of thought espoused in the QH article is echoed when assessing the California State University at Long Beach website section regarding qualitative research.

They, much like the author of this response would suggest, advocate the importance and necessity of qualitative research but at the same time caution about using it correctly and in a way that yields proper and verifiable results. Simple conjecture and blind assumptions are not part of any good research, qualitative or quantitative, and that slippery slope that exists is much more pervasive and prone to come to pass when…… [Read More].

Mixed Method Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design.

The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature.

The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…… [Read More]. Experimental esearch Methods in Business Experimental esearch Methods The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types.

The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor.

The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry. Introduction The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific.

Certainly the work of Max…… [Read More]. Proposing and Justifying a Research Method and Design. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case.

The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts. Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.

As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…… [Read More]. Social Research Effective and Ethical. This allows the researcher and the research to be completely and comprehensively concerned with doing the "right" thing, regardless of what the observations and evidence gathered in the course of the research shows.

This applies to honesty in recording and presenting information as well as to the collection methods for obtaining this information. Without a strong ethical through-line in social research, the entire purpose of this research ends up being lost. Social research exists specifically to identify issues in society and among individuals and to suggest ways to improve these issues, and to build better-functioning societies that allow for greater chances at group and individual success.

The measures of this success and the determination of exactly what constitutes a "better functioning society" are, of course, issues with many often hugely divergent conclusions, but even when these conclusions seem diametrically opposed the individuals that hold these conclusions are working towards the…… [Read More].

How do consumers search for and appraise health information on the world wide web? Qualitative study using focus groups, usability tests, and in-depth interviews.

Bmj, , Designing a qualitative study. The SAGE handbook of applied social research methods, 2, Anorexia has an emotional impact on the whole body. When the body is not getting the energy it requests to purpose normally, it goes into a mode of starvation. The body decelerates down and then turns to itself to gather the nutrients it needs, meaning the body starts to devour itself and the medical difficulties heap up Healthguide, , sec.

Anorexics can suffer from not having their menstrual periods, anemia, little body fluids, withered bones, loss of mineral, changes in brain chemistry, unbalanced heartbeat, failure of the kidney, failure of the heart, the growth of osteoporosis, and in the end death Kids Health. How can anorexia nervosa be treated? Treatment for this disease stresses significantly on the physical and psychological features of the issue.

Health Topic sec , treating anorexia comprises of three constituents: The medical treatment for anorexia sometimes can involve hospitalization. Therapy is another constituent in treating anorexia. Some methods of therapy comprise of behavior therapy, family therapy nutritional counseling, cognitive therapy, and group rehabilitation Heathguide, , sec 2.

The process of leading organizational change. Organizational climate and culture: Competing dynamics for transformational leadership. Review of Business Research. International Academy of Business and Economics. Retrieved January 20, from HighBeam Research: The development of management theory: How it all got started.

Retrieved January 18, from HighBeam Research: A force for change: How leadership differs from management. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Nurses' beliefs about family presence during resuscitation. Aspects of caring for dying patients which cause anxiety to first year student nurses.

International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 11 8 , Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. Essentials of nursing research. Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the humanistic imperative. References Concerns about kidney failure. Retrieved August 8, , from Web site: A Review of the Qualitative Research. Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research 3rd ed. The practice of social research.

An attempt to clarify the problem. Retrieved October 2, , at http: Works Cited Maloni, J. Retrieved 22 Sept at http: Naturalistic inquiry in e-learning research.

International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 4, Counseling Psychologist, 35, Last accessed 14 Dec Barclays Profits Fall by a Third.

Last accessed 14 Dec Business Case Studies. References Qualitative research designs. University of Missouri at St. Data collection strategies II: How and what to code. Methods of data collection in qualitative research: Ways to optimize understanding health related information. Geriatric Nursing 32 1. Introduction to educational research. Doing and writing qualitative research.

Turning points in qualitative research. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches 3rd ed. Hidden in plain sight: Human trafficking in the United States. Gender Issues, 27 , Works Cited Bartholomew, L. Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Mixing oil and water? Commitment and satisfaction in romantic associations: A test of the investment model. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 16,, Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: Responses to dissatisfaction in romantic involvements.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Qualitative Interviews View Full Essay. When one must use qualitative writing, however, it is important to strive for the same level of objectivity through precise use of language and through the conscious omission of anything that could influence the opinions of the reader. One highly important aspect of expressing observations though qualitative writing is describing the methods used to obtain those observations in a clear manner.

A reader can develop a much clearer understanding of the findings presented if he understands the context in which they were found.

The reader can also identify any potential biases or problems with the results that could be introduced by the methods used. The purpose of qualitative writing in the context of research is generally to present some final analytic finding. The presented results can only be considered valid in the context of the methods used to obtain them. Other forms of traditionally non-numerical writing, such as fiction and poetry, are seldom labeled as "qualitative writing.

The term is, therefore, most commonly used to refer to formal research-based writing, as the division between qualitative and quantitative data is very important in the context of research. Building the writing skills necessary to objectively and clearly express non-numerical research findings is of the utmost importance to those who commonly conduct non-numerical research.

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A Critique of a Qualitative Research Paper - This paper will critique the qualitative research paper, “The use of grammatical terminology in the second language classroom: A qualitative study of teachers’ practices and cognitions” by Simon Borg ().

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BASIC CONCEPTS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH (An Essay) By Deborah Sitorus One of the ways to gain knowledge is by carrying out some research. As what Zacharia () stated that in daily life most people conduct research to gain knowledge.

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Mar 29,  · This Essay will compare and contrast two different research methods that are qualitative and quantitative methods endeavouring to highlight differences and similarities between them, and providing example how they are applied through airline industry. In this essay I am going to express my understanding of the key principles of qualitative research. In order to understand the nature of qualitative research.

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Qualitative papers base their findings on textual analysis of observations, while quantitative studies rely on statistical analysis of numbers for their explanations. Features Qualitative essays are more subjective and focus on the researcher’s own inferences drawn from his study of the data. The word qualitative implies an emphasis on the qualities of entities and on processes and meanings that are not experimentally examined or measured [if measured at .