Majority of crude oil is imported from gulf countries to meet the demand. Power, industry and transport sectors consume higher quantity of petroleum followed by agriculture and house holds. Petroleum is also used in generation of electricity, which counts 64 percent of total electricity generation 34 coming from hydro generation. Balance recoverable reserves of crude oil in country have been estimated at Importance of natural gas is increasing rapidly.
Average production of natural gas is 4, Natural gas is used in general industry to prepare consumer items, to produce cement, for manufacturing fertilizers and to generate electricity. In form of CNG, it is used in transport sector. Share of natural gas in energy consumption is Liquefied petroleum gas LPG contributes around 0.
Pakistan has coal reserves estimated at over billion tonnes, including billion tonnes identified at Thar coalfields. Coal is primarily being used in brick kiln and cement industries and approximately 67 percent coal is imported because indigenous coal is not considered of good quality. Unlimited — sustainable — clean Renewable energy resources are those, which are naturally replenished and comes from resources such as water, sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat.
Hydro power is generated by using electricity generators to extract energy from moving water. Currently we are having MW against the potential of to MW. Wind power harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. These turbines cause the rotation of magnets, which creates electricity.
Though Pakistan has potentials of wind energy ranging from MW to MW, yet power generation through wind is in initial stages in Pakistan and currently 06 MW has been installed in first phase in Jhampir through a Turkish company and 50 MW will be installed shortly. Solar power involves using solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity, using sunlight hitting solar thermal panels to convert sunlight to heat water or air.
Pakistan has potential of more than , MW from solar energy. Building of solar power plants is underway in Kashmir, Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan. Mobile companies have been asked by the government to shift supply of energy to their transmission towers from petroleum to solar energy panels.
Biomass production involves using garbage or other renewable resources such as sugarcane, corn or other vegetation to generate electricity.
When garbage decomposes, methane is produced and captured in pipes and later burned to produce electricity. Vegetation and wood can be burned directly to generate energy, like fossil fuels, or processed to form alcohols.
Tidal power can be extracted from Moon-gravity-powered tides by locating a water turbine in a tidal current. The turbine can turn an electrical generator, or a gas compressor, that can then store energy until needed. Coastal tides are a source of clean, free, renewable, and sustainable energy. Plans are underway in Pakistan to harness tidal energy, however, no implementation has been made so far.
Nuclear power stations use nuclear fission reaction to generate energy by the reaction of uranium inside a nuclear reactor. Pakistan has a small nuclear power program, with MW capacity, but there are plans to increase this capacity substantially.
Since Pakistan is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it is excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which hinders its development of civil nuclear energy.
Remaining issues in development of nuclear energy are enricment of uranium from U to U, controlling chain reaction and dumping of solid waste. Causes of Energy Crisis: Resultantly, over the years, the gap between energy demand and supply drastically grew and now against demand of MW, we are having around MW.
Imbalanced energy energy mix Energy mix in Pakistan is quite imbalance in comparison to other countries, with greater reliance on non-renewable resources of gas A rational energy mix planning ought to be developed giving greater dependency to renewable hydel power , indigenous coal and alternative energy resources wind and solar energy. Nuclear energy can Non-utilization of enormous indigenous energy resources: Consequences of Energy Crisis: Energy is pivotal for running all other resources and crisis of energy directly influences all other sectors of the economy.
The economic progress is hampered by decline in agricultural productivity as well as by halting in operations of industries. One important factor of lower GDP and inflation of commodity prices in recent years is attributed to shortfalls in energy supply.
Agricultural productivity of Pakistan is decreasing due to provision of energy for running tube wells, agricultural machinery and production of fertilizers and pesticides. Thus higher energy means higher agricultural productivity.
Nearly all Industrial units are run with the energy and breakage in energy supply is having dire consequences on industrial growth. As a result of decline in energy supply, industrial units are not only being opened, but also the existing industrial units are gradually closing. By closure of industrial units and less agricultural productivity, new employment opportunities ceased to exist and already employed manpower is shredded by the employers to increase their profit ratios.
Thus energy crisis contributes towards unemployment. This factor is primarily related to the domestic usage of energy cooking, heating and water provision. Load shedding cause unrest and frustration amongst the people and results in agitation against the government.
Declination in economic growth, lower agricultural productivity, unemployment and shackling industrial growth result in increasing poverty.
Currently, around forty percent of our population is living beyond poverty line and this ratio is increasing day by day. Ample control of energy crisis will surely yield in curbing the menace of poverty.
Nonetheless, menace of energy crisis can be overwhelmed by government through making effective policies and its proactive implementation.
Simultaneously, it is the responsibility of us, the people of Pakistan, to utilize the available energy astutely and wisely to play our due role for progress of the country.
Energy crisis can be curtailed by: Because mitigation can reduce the use of traditional petroleum sources, it can also affect the timing of peak oil and the shape of the Hubbert curve. Another mitigation measure is the setup of a cache of secure fuel reserves like the United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve, in case of national emergency. Chinese energy policy includes specific targets within their 5-year plans.
Andrew McKillop has been a proponent of a contract and converge model or capping scheme, to mitigate both emissions of greenhouse gases and a peak oil crisis. The imposition of a carbon tax would have mitigating effects on an oil crisis. Ecologist William Rees believes that. To avoid a serious energy crisis in coming decades, citizens in the industrial countries should actually be urging their governments to come to international agreement on a persistent, orderly, predictable, and steepening series of oil and natural gas price hikes over the next two decades.
Due to a lack of political viability on the issue, government mandated fuel prices hikes are unlikely and the unresolved dilemma of fossil fuel dependence is becoming a wicked problem.
A global soft energy path seems improbable, due to the rebound effect. Conclusions that the world is heading towards an unprecedented large and potentially devastating global energy crisis due to a decline in the availability of cheap oil lead to calls for a decreasing dependency on fossil fuel. Other ideas concentrate on design and development of improved, energy-efficient urban infrastructure in developing nations. Government funding for alternative energy is more likely to increase during an energy crisis, so too are incentives for oil exploration.
For example funding for research into inertial confinement fusion technology increased during the s. Kirk Sorensen and others have suggested that additional nuclear power plants, particularly liquid fluoride thorium reactors have the energy density to mitigate global warming and replace the energy from peak oil, peak coal and peak gas. The reactors produce electricity and heat so much of the transportation infrastructure should move over to electric vehicles.
However, the high process heat of the molten salt reactors could be used to make liquid fuels from any carbon source. Social and economic effects. Energy economics and Renewable energy commercialization The macroeconomic implications of a supply shock-induced energy crisis are large, because energy is the resource used to exploit all other resources.
When energy markets fail, an energy shortage develops. Electricity consumers may experience intentionally engineered rolling blackouts during periods of insufficient supply or unexpected power outages, regardless of the cause. Industrialized nations are dependent on oil, and efforts to restrict the supply of oil would have an adverse effect on the economies of oil producers.
For the consumer, the price of natural gas, gasoline petrol and diesel for cars and other vehicles rises. An early response from stakeholders is the call for reports, investigations and commissions into the price of fuels. There are also movements towards the development of more sustainable urban infrastructure. In , survey respondents in the United States were willing to pay more for a plug-in hybrid car.
Global New Investments in Renewable Energy In the market, new technology and energy efficiency measures become desirable for consumers seeking to decrease transport costs. January 30, Planet Ark. There may be a Relocation trend towards local foods and possibly microgeneration, solar thermal collectors and other green energy sources. Tourism trends and gas-guzzler ownership varies with fuel costs. Energy shortages can influence public opinion on subjects from nuclear power plants to electric blankets.
Building construction techniques—improved insulation, reflective roofs, thermally efficient windows, etc. Green building and Zero-energy building. Crisis management An electricity shortage is felt most by those who depend on electricity for heating, cooking, and water supply.
In these circumstances, a sustained energy crisis may become a humanitarian crisis. If an energy shortage is prolonged a crisis management phase is enforced by authorities.
Energy audits may be conducted to monitor usage. Various curfews with the intention of increasing energy conservation may be initiated to reduce consumption. To conserve power during the Central Asia energy crisis, authorities in Tajikistan ordered bars and cafes to operate by candlelight. Warnings issued that peak demand power supply might not be sustained. In the worst kind of energy crisis energy rationing and fuel rationing may be incurred.
An energy crisis, like any other crisis in the field of economic activity, can be brought about by a number of factors: organised labour strikes, embargoes by governments, over-consumption, aging infrastructure, and bottlenecks at production centres and port facilities. Pipeline failures and other.
Energy Crisis. A global energy crisis is defined as any great shortfall in the supply of energy to an economy. Energy is oil, electricity, or other natural resources like coal and natural gas. When the energy supply to an economy becomes endangered or scarce, prices raise to record highs.5/5(1).
Free Essay: Energy Crisis Energy is important to our nation for many reasons. It is a key economic driver. It offers new market opportunities for business. Essay on “Energy Crisis in the World” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.
A country sadly lacking in natural resources like coal, gas, oil, wood and the sources of nuclear power, solar power, thermal power, and hydropower is ultimately doomed to serious, energy crisis. It means a constant failure in generating and harnessing the sufficient amount of energy to meet the survival. and growth requirements of the masses. Free Essay: Energy crisis and environmental pollution are highlighted to be one of the major global problems in the 21st century. For the past years.